Log In | Users | Register
Welcome, Registration, and other StartingPoints; Foswiki history & Wiki style; All the docs...
Edit | Attach | New | Raw | Diff | Print | Subscribe | Tools


If you can enter text, you're ready for Foswiki. With a few simple rules, you'll be able to use plain text to create well-styled postings, instantly. What you are going to learn here is called Topic Markup Language, or simply TML. So here comes a fast-track guide to shorthand basics:

General text formatting

  • Separate each paragraph with a blank line.

  • To display a bold type word or phrase, use asterisks: *bold type*.

  • To display an italic word or phrase, use underscores: _italic_.

  • To display bold with italics word or phrase, use double underscores: __bold italic__.

  • To display a word or phrase in MONOSPACED TYPE, use equal signs: =like this=.

  • Use ==double equal signs== for bold: bold mono.

  • To display colored text, enter:__ %RED% red text %ENDCOLOR% and %GREEN% green text %ENDCOLOR% to get red text and green text .
    • %<color>% text must end with %ENDCOLOR%. If you want to switch from one color to another one you first need to end the active color with %ENDCOLOR%, e.g. write %RED% some text %ENDCOLOR% %GREEN% more text %ENDCOLOR%.
    • DefaultPreferences defines some commonly used colors: %YELLOW%, %RED%, %PINK%, %PURPLE%, %TEAL%, %NAVY%, %BLUE%, %AQUA%, %LIME%, %GREEN%, %OLIVE%, %MAROON%, %BLACK%, %GRAY%, %SILVER% and %ENDCOLOR%.

  • To display headings, type (from the beginning of a line) three dashes (-), from one to six plus signs (+), a space, and your heading text.
    • The quantity of plus signs is related to the size of the heading - the more plus signs you use, the smaller the heading.
    • You can insert a nested table of contents, generated from headings, by placing %TOC% wherever you like on a page (see System.Macros for more %TOC% options).

  • Use <verbatim> to enclose code excerpts, filenames, and other unformatted text:
    unformatted text!
    and more of it!

Macros and special characters (advanced)

  • %MACROS% can be set inside verbatim tags - they are not disabled. For more detailed information, see Macros.

  • If you want to display angle brackets, enter them as HTML codes instead of typing them in directly:
    • &lt; = <
      &gt; = >
    • You enter: (a &gt; 0)
      Result: (a > 0)

  • Sometimes you will not see the & charachter and you need to excape it to see it as it is. The reason behind is that & has a special meaning in HTML - it starts so called character entities, like '&copy;' which is the © copyright character.
    • Type 'This &amp; that' to get 'This & that'.

Internal and external links

  • To link to another Wiki topic in the same web, type the WikiWord of that topic: WebHome.

  • To link to a Wiki topic in a different web, type the name of the web, and a dot, first: Sandbox.WebHome.

  • A Wiki topic that doesn't exist will appear highlighted, with question mark at the end, prompting you (or someone else) to start that topic by clicking the ?: ExampleOfANewTopic? (click the ?, but don't save, to preserve the example!).

  • To create an external link, type the full URL: http://foswiki.org/.

  • To prevent a WikiWord from becoming a link, place <nop> or an exclamation mark (!) in front of the WikiWord: <nop>NoLinkPlease or !NoLinkPlease.

  • To escape the exclamation mark escape, try prefixing a <nop>, e.g. write A <nop>!= B to get "A != B". Alternatively, use the HTML entity &#33;, which renders as an exclamation mark, e.g. write A &#33;= B to get "A != B".

Bullet and numbered lists

  • To indent with a bullet, enter [space][space][space][asterisk][space].
    • Use multiples of 3 spaces to nest bullets.
      • That's 3-6-9 spaces...

  • To create a numbered list:
    1. Start items in a numbered list with [space][space][space][1][space].
    2. The "1" (or any number) will be replaced by a correct numbering order.
    3. To add a new paragraph without restarting list numbering, use the %BR% variable, like this:
      Text added (in a new paragraph)
    4. and the numbered list continues.

Always start counting spaces for bullets or numbers from the beginning of a new line.


  • To display an image in a topic, attach it and type in edit mode:

  • Three (or more) consecutive hyphens will create a horizontal rule:

Follow GoodStyle recommendations when editing topics. In general, it is always nice to add one's signature at the end of a topic or comments. To add your signature, type Main.YourName, it will then expand to WikiGuest.

See EditingShorthand for the complete set of formatting rules. spacer

This site is managed by the Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM).
This site is powered by FoswikiCopyright © by the contributing authors. All material on this site is the property of the contributing authors.
Ideas, requests, problems regarding C2SM Wiki? Send feedback